JoDRM Volume 9, Issue no. 2 (17), October 2018

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CONTENTS
I. ARTICLES
STRATEGIC VALUE OF NATO's INVESTMENT ON SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY & INNOVATION (STI): MANAGEMENT OF INFORMATION AND KNOWLEDGE AS INTANGIBLE ASSETS

Ioannis REMATISIOS*,
Professor Yannis A. POLLALIS**

*NCI Agency, The Hague, Netherlands
**University of Piraeus, Piraeus, Greece
Abstract
This paper discusses the defence Science, Technology & Innovation (STI) investment within NATO. As a complex process it involves multiple stakeholders with common interest in development of knowledge through R&D activities, connecting current and future military capabilities. The objective is to generate and provide evidence-based scientific advice to decision-makers and deliver advanced solutions to national and NATO challenges. This process can generate valuable intangible assets for the Alliance in form of information and knowledge-based capital. The challenge for NATO is to manage and exploit the advantages of collective defence STI on behalf of its 29 members. The article approaches defence STI policies in comparison with power of politics and national as well as industrial interests. The attempt to quantify scientific knowledge as added value with significant return on investment unfolds the dynamics and vulnerabilities within NATO’s corporate culture. Although complexity is the main argument and pre-assumption, multidisciplinary aspects (political, economic, social, technological, and legal) are carefully examined and explored, providing a comprehensive approach of its strategic value to the Alliance.
Key words
Defence investment, NATO Science & Technology, Information & Knowledge Management, Intangible Assets, Defence Industry, Return on Investment, Added value, Emerging Military Technology
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Journal of Defense Resources Management 9:2(2018): 5-17.
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THE POLITICS OF ARMS TRADE:THE “FORGOTTEN WAR” IN YEMEN

Raluca-Elena RĂDUCEA*

*National School of Political and Administrative Studies, Bucharest, Romania
Abstract
This paper focuses on the political implications of the arms trade and transfers related to the conflict in Yemen, wishing to emphasize the nature and the impact of arms exports to states involved in ongoing military conflict to both the outcome of the military intervention as well as to the international norms regulating arms exports. Labelled as ‘the forgotten war’, the conflict in Yemen has failed to raise sufficient international attention as to amount for the scale of the humanitarian and political disaster that encompasses the country and negatively impacts the evolution in the region. Although the legitimacy of the conflict has generated a considerable amount of legal and academic debate, which was doubled by the numerous international organizations drawing attention to the worsening humanitarian situation, these actions have failed to produce enough momentum such as to consistently alter national practices related to arms exports and to determine a collective response under UN auspices.
Key words
arms trade, military intervention, Yemen, humanitarian
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Journal of Defense Resources Management 9:2(2018): 18-23.
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THE IMPACT OF FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT AND TRADE ON ECONOMIC GROWTH IN IRAN: AN ARDL BOUNDS TEST APPROACH

MASOUD ALI KHALID*

*College of Administration & Financial Science, Department of Accounting by IT. Cihan University-Slemani, Kurdistan Region Government/Iraq
Abstract
The correlation between trade, FDI and economic growth in many developing nations had remained one of the greatest crucial problems in the economic scholars in current years mostly for those countries facing from unemployment issues and lack of skills and technological development. Our study evaluates this problem by applying Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) model over the span 1970 - 2007 in Iran. We have found evidence that the relationship between FDI and population is positive and statistically significant, meaning that population is mainly characterized by foreign investors, knowledge and transfer of technology, and we can see that FDI is mainly affected by skill employers in Iran. While the relationship between FDI, Trade and GDPC are positive but insignificant, it illustrates that FDI doesn’t have any impact on both trade and growth rate in Iran. Our findings are similar with previous studies.
Key words
Economic growth, FDI, Trade, ARDL and Iran.
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Journal of Defense Resources Management 9:2(2018): 24-40.
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PROJECTING THE ORDER OF MILITARY MERIT POPULATION. AN APPLICATION OF THE COHORT-COMPONENT METHOD

Meagan BOILEAU*

*Department of National Defence, Ottawa, Canada
Abstract
In 1972 the Canadian Armed Forces (CAF) created the Order of Military Merit (Order) to honor members who have demonstrated conspicuous merit and exceptional service. Despite efforts to ensure appointments to the Order were representative of the entire CAF, a 2007 study found that appointments had become concentrated at senior ranks. In response to this study, new nomination guidelines were released in 2007 and then augmented in 2010. The 2010 guidelines yielded some early positive results; however, the average years of service (YOS) at appointment target has not been met. The Order’s advisory council requested a population forecast of the Order to determine the impact on the size and YOS profile of the serving Order population if the typical YOS at appointment is reduced to 18 to 23 years. This paper presents the methodology used to model the Order population and discusses the impact of appointing members to the Order earlier in their career.
Key words
cohort-component, population projection, population model, population dynamics, order of military merit, military honors and awards.
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Journal of Defense Resources Management 9:2(2018): 41-48.
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THE QUANTITY ASSESMENT OF THE HUMAN FACTOR IN UNIT COMBAT CAPABILITY

Azer ALIEV*,
Azad BAYRAMOV*

*Armed Forces War College of the Azerbaijan Republic Baku, Azerbaijan Republic
Abstract
In the paper, the task of quantity assessment of the human factor has been considered in the determination of the unit combat capability. For determination of personal (staff) combat potential a physical drill, a combat training, a moral and psychological training, as well as, a battle experience have been taken into account as human factors. Besides this, an influence of a field and an environment conditions have been taken into account. Using these numerical data and weapon effectiveness coefficients, the method of unit combat capability (a dynamic power) calculations has been offered. In accordance to this method, first, the static power of unit has been determined, then the battle and environment conditions are been taken account.
Key words
human factor, combat capability, performance characteristics, weapon effectiveness coefficient, combat consistency, unit combat capability
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Journal of Defense Resources Management 9:2(2018): 49-57.
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EU COUNTRIES IN NATO. AN ANALYSIS OF DEFENCE EXPENDITURES.

Cristina ANTONOAIE*

* Regional Department of Defense Resources Management Studies, Braşov, Romania
Abstract
From all the statistical indicators concerning the activity of NATO we considering that the Defence expenditure is the most important one. NATO defines defence expenditure as payments made by a national government specifically to meet the needs of its armed forces or those of Allies. In this paper we have analyzed the evolution of this indicator between 2009 and 2016 in the 22 European Countries that are in the same time members of EU and members of NATO.
Key words
EU, NATO, Defence expenditure, GDP, maximum and minimum value, evolution
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Journal of Defense Resources Management 9:2(2018): 58-63.
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LEADERSHIP TRAINING FOR PEACEBUILDING OPERATIONS

Mustafa Kemal TOPCU*
Unsal SIGRI**

* Ph.D., Lecturer, National Defense University, Ankara, Turkey
** Prof. dr., Baskent University, Ankara, Turkey
Abstract
Threats were specified and in mass in the past, and then are transformed to multi-directional, multi-dimensional, and volatile structure in early 21st century. Hence uncertainty and instability dominate operational area. Today, security is comprehended solely not military but political, economic, lawful, psychological, and technological in a holistic approach. Towards this end, global security environment may be defined with three key words: circulation, complexity, and contingency. Within this context, aim of the mission is to enforce peace and restore stability by proactive measures. However, it seems impossible to have fruitful results in peace building operations by training 21st century people with a mindset of pre-Cold War time. Hence, the study aims at revealing the need for change in curriculum of officers to get deployed in peace building operations. The study, therefore, proposes a unified body taking on nationwide responsibility to manage training operations, and lays out relevant programs and tools to be included in curriculum.
Key words
Military Leadership, Contingent Leadership, Operational Leadership, Leadership, UN, PKO, Peacebuilding
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Journal of Defense Resources Management 9:2(2018): 64-74.
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SECURITY PERCEIVED AS A CULTURAL CONCEPT: THE AMERICAN POLITICAL CULTURE

Oana-Andreea GHITA-PIRNUTA*

*TRANSILVANIA University of Brasov, Romania
Abstract
The present paper aims to analyze the political acceptance of the concept of security as it helps understanding the issue of national and global security. Power is the most influential factor that determines the behavior of states in the international system and therefore it is the main enemy concerning global peace and order. It is worth to highlight how strategic culture can improve the perception of security. Each state focuses upon its own interests and this aspect does not guarantee that the other states will cooperate for maintaining peace and world order and this situation is continuously feeding the global insecurity. This study focuses on the concept of political culture of the United States analyzing the relationship between culture and politics within the framework of the political system.
Key words
security, strategic culture, politics, power, American political culture
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Journal of Defense Resources Management 9:2(2018): 75-92.
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ON THE NEED OF RESEARCH ON THE PHENOMENON OF A PERSON IN THE POLISH SECURITY STUDIES

Cezary SMUNIEWSKI,
Marcin MAZUREK,
Karolina KOCHAŃCZYK-BONIŃSKA*

*War Studies University, Warsaw, Poland
Abstract
Paper indicates the fundamental need of researches that will identify the an-thropological basis of Polish security studies as it proves that only human person can be the irreducible subject of all possible security studies. The first part of the article deals with the connection between the way of perceiving man, human in-strumentality, axiological horizon that he creates and the concept of security itself. The second part of the article shows the crisis as a problem area which has been organizing scientific discourse for the last 200 years and then the origins of security studies as a kind of response to that crisis are presented. The last part of the paper contains detailed justification of the need to take up in-depth research on the phe-nomenon of a person in security studies and detailed analysis of problems around which this research needs to be organized and carried out.
Key words
phenomenon of person, crisis, security studies, security anthropology
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Journal of Defense Resources Management 9:2(2018): 93-108.
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ABOUT CIVILIAN MILITARY EDUCATION IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN POLAND. AXIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF THE FUNCTIONING OF MILITARY CLASS STUDENTS BASED ON AN ANALYSIS OF THE RESULTS OF OWN STUDIES

Ilona URYCH*

*Faculty of National Security, War Studies University, Warsaw, Poland
Abstract
The present article concerns civilian military education in secondary schools in Poland. The article presents the results of the author's own pilot studies on the axiological aspect of the functioning of military classes in secondary schools in Poland. The objective of the article is to specify the characteristics of the axiological aspects of the functioning of students of military classes based on an analysis of the results of the author's own studies, with particular focus on the interests, dimensions of development of personality traits, and the objectives of the respondents. The research method that was used was a diagnostic survey, the technique was a poll, and the research tool was a questionnaire.After a short description of the origins of military classes and of the research methods used, the authors analyse the axiological dimension of the functioning of the respondents: their interests, the directions of development of their personality traits, and their objectives. The conclusion contains answers to the research problems and a comparison of the values of the students of military classes to the values shared by young persons determined in contemporary studies in Poland.
Key words
education, axiology, values, young persons, military classes, civilian military education
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Journal of Defense Resources Management 9:2(2018): 109-134.
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STUDY OF WATER JET PROPULSION SYSTEM DESIGN FOR FAST PATROL BOAT (FPB-60)

Arica Dwi SUSANTO,
U.B. PRIHANTO,
AHMADI,
Okol S SUHARYO,
Adi BANDONO*

*Indonesian Naval Technology College, STTAL, Bumimoro-Morokrembangan, Surabaya 60187, Indonesia
Abstract
FPB-60 is a type of patrol boat built by shipyard in Indonesia to strengthen the needs of water territorial. However, the 20 years age caused a decrease in performance of the vessel. The method used was the harvard guldammer method to calculate water jet system parameters at a maximum velocity of 35 knots such as inlet diameter and nossel diameter, pump power, pump type used and other parameters to obtain Overall Propulsive Coefficient at that speed. In the calculation of water jet propulsion system design, the amount of capacity generated water jet pump system obtained was 4.15 m3 / s with flow velocity on the nozzle/jet of 28.8 m/s. Based on the value of specific swabs of suction (Nss) of 6205.49, the pump for the water jet propulsion system had considered fulfilled the cavitation limit requirement so that it could be used for (FPB-60).
Key words
Vessel Resistance, Water Jet, Power, FPB
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Journal of Defense Resources Management 9:2(2018): 135-146.
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MARITIME STRATEGY DEVELOPMENT TO ENCOUNTER THE THREAT OF NATIONAL SEA SECURITY IN INDONESIA TERRITORY

A. K. SUSILO,
U. CIPTOMULYONO,
I Nengah PUTRA,
AHMADI,
SUTRISNO*

*Indonesia Naval Technology College, Morokrembangan, Surabaya 60187, Indonesia
Abstract
As a country with the largest sea area in Asia, Indonesia will certainly encounter the threats to the maritime aspect. The aim of this paper is to make an analysis of national maritime security of concerning the regional development effect. This paper uses a SWOT approach (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats), Fuzzy Multi-criteria Decision Making (FMCDM), and Borda method. SWOT analysis is used to identify internal and external factors in national maritime security, and strategic determination. Fuzzy MCDM (FMCDM) method is used to select the right strategy in maritime security control. The Borda method is used to define the sub-strategy, priorities of the selected strategy. The result of this paper with SWOT analysis is to identify four strategies, likely Strategy 1 (SO); Strategy 2 (WO); strategy 3 (WT); Strategy 4 (ST). Based on FMCDM method, Strategy 1 (SO) has a weight of 0.256 as a third rank; Strategy 2 (WO) has a weight of 0.26 as a second rank; Strategy 3 (WT) has a weight of 0.208 as a fourth rank; Strategy 4 (ST) has a weight of 0.276 as a first rank. Then, the strategy chosen is Strategy 4 (ST). Based on Borda method, the first priority of sub-strategy from strategy 4 (ST) is to increase the percentage of State Budget for the maritime sector in the development of Navy Capability and other stakeholder to carry out the operation of sea crime action with allocation of 22,587%.
Key words
Maritime Security, Indonesian Sea, SWOT Analysis, Fuzzy MCDM, Borda Method
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Journal of Defense Resources Management 9:2(2018): 147-171.
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PSYCHOLOGICAL PREPAREDNESS IN JUDO AND ITS ROLE IN THE MULTILATERAL PREPAREDNESS OF THE FUTURE OFFICERS

Gheorghe MIHALACHE*

*“Henri Conda” Air Force Academy, Brasov, Romania
Abstract
The study outline the importance of the psychological factor of Judo in the multilateral preparedness of the future Air force officers, which along with other adapted components of the sport training (physical training – general and specific, technical and tactical, and theoretical), in accordance with specific requirements of the military academic, have to have as fundamental objective the following: a superior index of mental and psychical health, the education / development of the psychic qualities (volitional, emotional, intellectual) at the excellence level, and not the least, a strong personality, specific to the modern, contemporary fighter, capable to adapt to ever changing situation from military operations theatres.
Key words
psychological preparedness; Judo; Mizo no Kokoro; Zanshin; judoka; Tsuki no Kokoro
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Journal of Defense Resources Management 9:2(2018): 172-179.
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TYPOLOGY OF ADMINISTRATION IN NATIONAL SECURITY

Assoc. Prof. Ryszard SZYNOWSKI, Ph.D.*
Assoc. Prof. Marek WALANCIK, Ph.D.*

*The University of Dąbrowa Górnicza, Poland
Abstract
This article presents the types of public administration and their connection with the security issues. The author, taking into consideration the subjective and objective approach, presents the existing opinions on administration types, and makes an attempt to systematise administration in national security, looking into military, national defence and national security administration.
Key words
national security system, public administration, military administration, national defence administration
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Journal of Defense Resources Management 9:2(2018): 181-210.
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