JoDRM Volume 11, Issue no. 2 (21), October 2020

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CONTENTS
I. ARTICLES



THE EFFECTS OF DEFENCE EXPENDITURES ON GROWTH: THE CASE OF TURKEY

Salih AYGÜN
Tolga ÖZ

National Defence University, İstanbul, Turkey
Abstract
The aim of this paper is to examine the relationship between defence expenditure and economic growth in Turkey. Defi nition of defence and defence expenditure, characteristics of defence expenditure, defi nition of economic growth and economic growth models are explained. Defence expenditure and the economic growth data of Turkey provided by the International Stockholm Peace Research Institute (SIPRI) reports between 1999-2019 is analyzed with correlation and regression tests via time series analysis. According to the results of Engle-Granger Cointegration and Toda and Yamamoto Causality tests defence expenditure and economic growth series are not correlated in the long run. Also, no two-way causality relationship between growth rate and defence expenditure is reached.
Key words
Defence, Defence Expenditure, Economic Growth, Time Series Analysis.
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Journal of Defense Resources Management 11:2(2020): 5-23.
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ANALYSIS OF DEFENCE, HEALTH, AND EDUCATION EXPENDITURES IN EUROPE’S COUNTRIES

Cristina ANTONOAIE

Regional Department of Defense Resources Management Studies, Brasov, Romania
Abstract
Nowadays the amount of money that a state is allocating for the defense is very important, along with the education and health. In this paper we have analyzed, with the help of the data provided by the United Nations Human Development Report 2019 and the Global Firepower 2020 what is the situation of these expenses in the countries in Europe.
Key words
HDI rank; GDP; military expenses; health expenses; education expenses; ratio; trends.
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Journal of Defense Resources Management 11:2(2020): 24-31.
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CHALLENGES OF DEFINING A COUNTRY’S MILITARY POWER

Maria CONSTANTINESCU

Regional Department of Defense Resources Management Studies, Brasov, Romania
Abstract
The concept of military power seems straightforward, but it is a lot more complex than it appears at fi rst glance, which has direct implications on defense decisions and analyses. A crucial issue in building a country’s armed forces and deciding on its appropriate size/strength derives from the fact that there is only one situation in which a country’s military power can be precisely assessed, that is in time of military confl ict. Excluding this situation, the best military planners and decision makers can do in peacetime is try to estimate the required and actual strength of a country’s military, an attempt not devoid of challenges. The focus of this paper is to address a few of the issues and challenges encountered in defi ning the concept of a country’s military power.
Key words
military, power, challenges.
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Journal of Defense Resources Management 11:2(2020): 32-39.
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CHANGE MANAGEMENT AND ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE. GAPS TO BE BRIDGED IN BUREAUCRATIC ORGANIZATIONS

Ilie SAVA

Human Resources Management General Directorate,
Ministry of National Defence, Bucharest, Romania
Abstract
The paper aims to summarize the characteristics and functionality of bureaucratic systems, from the point of view of organizational culture, with emphasis on its infl uence on the effi ciency and eff ectiveness of the organization. Also proposes a detailed analysis of the changing management and of the models which can be applied in order to change organization culture in particular.
Key words
organization, organizational culture, change management, bureaucracy, effi ciency, eff ectiveness.
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Journal of Defense Resources Management 11:2(2020): 40-59.
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APPROACHING THE TRANSFORMATION OF HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT IN MEDICAL STRUCTURES

Mihaela BARCAN

Pneumoftiziology Hospital Leamna, Romania
Abstract
In the field of national security, the decisional problem of the scientifi c approach consists in proposing strategies that would allow the transformation of human resources management (THRM) in civil and military medical structures, as well as the construction of a research model, built to study the impact of THRM on employees and the management of healthcare organizations. The existing relations between HRM and the management of medical institutions were highlighted, in terms of work climate, organizational structure and managerial effi ciency, so the data obtained highlighted the discrepancies between organizations, as well as the diff erence in approach to medical activity. The results obtained have a favorable impact on the competitive environment in the fi eld of healthcare by off ering a portfolio of medical services and quality profi le. The practical value is given by the study of the processes of THRM and the formulation of proposals regarding models and strategies for the THRM.
Key words
human resources, work climate, employee motivation, individual performance, employee attitude, workforce diversity, staff turnover, talent management.
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Journal of Defense Resources Management 11:2(2020): 60-96.
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THEORETICAL AND PRACTICAL ASPECTS OF STUDENTS’ MOTIVATION IN THE MILITARY EDUCATION SETTING

Koba TCHITCHINADZE

Chief of Section Personal Readiness Analysis of J-1 Department of Georgian Defense forces, PHD student Georgian Technical University
Abstract
Recognized by international experience one of the most important factors in the success of the country’s armed forces is a motivated and educated human resource. Consequently, in the contemporary stage the world’s developed countries’ armed forces pay great attention to the education, training and career development of the personnel. The article describes close relationship between military education, educational process and the motivation of the military servicemen. It is noteworthy that in the armed forces there is no uniform approach to motivate military personnel, the motivation process is more oriented towards the challenge of internal interest by methods of ‘punishment and encouragement‘, focusing on the educational process in the fi eld of military education, and the external impulses and motivation of students. In the theoretical aspect not only the theory of contemporary motivation and demands – Richard Ryan and Edward Des ‘the theory of self – determination, Victor Vroom’s theory of expectations and Abraham Maslow’s theory of expectations and requirements, but also substantiates the advantages, values and importance from the scope of practical aspects of military education. Students’ motivation sources and types are based on the results of the survey conducted by the Georgian National Defence Academy students. In this article the possibility of implementation of the proposed theories in the fi eld of military education is reinforced and stated by examples and practical research results of well-known authors. Various forms and methods of student motivation are discussed, the role and abilities of teachers and instructors in students’ motivation. It focuses on the theory of self-determination that expresses the importance of motivating students among diff erent people with diff erent status and thus closely related to the educational process. The theory focuses on three basic universal requirements such as autonomy, competency and relatedness. The article presents the summary and recommendations of values, importance and advantages of using theories of motivation and demands in the fi eld of military education by students, teachers and instructors.
Key words
motivation, theories of motivation and needs.
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Journal of Defense Resources Management 11:2(2020): 97-112.
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A SURVEY OF PERSONAL PHYSICAL SECURITY AWARENESS IN STUDENTS IN SELECTED UNIVERSITIES IN KENYA 1990-2019

Felistus KINYANJUI
Anthony MANYARA

Department of International Relations, Confl ict and Strategic Studies, Kenyatta University Nairobi
Abstract
The end of the Cold War brought with it changes in the international security, with an escalation in intra-state confl icts, characterized with violence perpetuated by discernable and not so discrete foes. This challenge broadens dimensions of security to include human, social, economic, political, and environmental aspects which provide referent objects which are securitized. In line with securitization, a response to the asymmetric wars confi gured in terrorism whose preference is to attack “soft targets” such as people on holiday, revelers, shoppers, worshippers, and of particular concern to this study, university students. Unlike critical infrastructures which are well guarded by armed personnel, universities are core soft targets made of intellectuals and their trainees, who have bare military training and any inkling on how to respond in case of a terrorist attack. This makes such institutions susceptible as they hold tens of thousands of persons at any given time, making them a strategic attraction and target for terrorist aimed at causing maximum damage and fear among civilian populations. Granted the high risk area that universities are, the study aimed to establish the level of physical security awareness and subsequent preparedness to deal with such issues among students in selected universities in Kenya. Findings showed 89.4% of the respondents considered physical security as a personal responsibility. Only a paltry 7.5 % of respondents had received some form of personal security training yet extant literature suggests that security awareness training is proportional to improved security awareness. The universities surveyed had emergency response instructions in the students’ handbooks detailing how to respond to emergencies such as fi re, which is in consistency with international best practices. Students covered in this survey had practical ideas of what can be done to improve their physical security. We conclude that learning to live with the threat can be enhanced through training and conduct of drills to acquaint students with martial arts and self-defense skills. Students as a corporate body are an agency with capacity to be tapped by university management in planning and execution of physical security best practices.
Key words
terrorism, soft targets, securitization, personal safety, training, agency.
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Journal of Defense Resources Management 11:2(2020): 113-126.
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DEVELOPMENT OF PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL MODEL FOR LOGISTIC STAFF PERSONNEL WITH THE KEY PERFORMANCE INDICATOR (KPI) AND ANALYTICAL HIERARCHY PROCESS (AHP)

R. MADHAKOMALA*
K. GUNAWAN*
MARSININGSIH**
A.K. SUSILO***

*Lecturer, Jakarta State University, Rawamangun Jakarta Indonesia
**Program of Human Resources Management, Jakarta State University
***Indonesia Naval Technology College, Krembangan, Surabaya-Indonesia

Abstract
Nowadays, the performance appraisal system that exists within the TNI is still general and not specifi c, meaning that the performance appraisal of TNI offi cers does not represent in detail the specifi c criteria of the performance appraisal of TNI staff offi cers, so the assessment system still requires development criteria. This study aims to develop a model of performance appraisal evaluation instruments for logistics staff offi cers in the TNI environment. This study uses the Key Performance Indicator (KPI) and Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) approach. Based on the results of the research, it was found that the development of the TNI logistics staff performance appraisal model consists of 3 (three) criteria, namely logistical activities (A), logistics function (F), and logistical principles (L). Furthermore, logistics activities (A) consist of 5 KPIs (A1-A5), the logistics function criteria (F) consist of 5 KPIs (F1-F5), the logistics principle criteria (L) consist of 7 KPIs (L1-L7). Based on the calculation of the criteria values that have been carried out by referring to the Key performance indicators, it is found that the criteria that have the largest total are the logistic principle criteria with a weight value of 0.413; logistic function criteria is in the second position with a weight value of 0.327; Logistic activity criteria is in the third position with a weight value of 0.260. Furthermore, based on the total result value, the highest score is obtained, namely the Responsive sub-criteria with a weight value of 0.113; while the lowest value is the Survive Ability sub-criteria with a weight value of 0.028. This research is expected to be a model of performance appraisal evaluation and to make an important contribution to TNI organizations in particular and to function for unit organizations in general.
Key words
Performance Appraisal; Key Performance Indicator (KPI); Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP); Logistics.
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Journal of Defense Resources Management 11:2(2020): 127-143.
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REFLECTIONS ON COMMUNICATION AND REDUNDANCY IN MILITARY INFORMATION SYSTEMS

Costinel Nicolae MARESI

“Carol I” National Defence University, Romania
Abstract
A military organization, with a modern information system, can develop rapidly, can shape the operational environment and obtain quality intelligence products by calling for a rigorously prepared and integrated internal and external communication in its operations. The current framework imposed by the enormous speed and the huge volume of information conveyed, unprecedented in the history of humanity, requires a good knowledge of this social process, often neglected, but which ensures many advantages, and few disadvantages, if we were to overlook the existence of redundancy. There are various hybrid threats to our nation’s and our allies’ security, that use diff erent types of communication in the most innovative, surprising and eff ective way. The aim of the current scientifi c research is to analyze and develop the functions and role of communication in military information systems and to draw attention to the undesirable eff ects of redundancy in the decision-making process.
Key words
internal military communication, external military communication, strategic communication, directed informational redundancy, military information system.
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Journal of Defense Resources Management 11:2(2020): 144-153.
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MANAGEMENT AND RELIABILITY ASSURANCE OF A MILITARY FIELD NETWORK FUNCTIONING. ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD CALCULATIONS

A.A. BAYRAMOV*,**
R.R. IMANOV*

*Armed Forces War College, Baku Azerbaijan Republic
**Institute of Control Systems, Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences
Abstract
In given paper there has been considered a management and a reliability assurance of a military fi eld network functioning. The calculation method of electromagnetic fi eld strength of radiated antennas in the site of a fi eld network site of military radio communication of high frequency and super high frequency with low and mean power up to 1 kW has been off ered. The off ered method of EMF calculation in limited site is based on the solution of electrodynamics’ tasks of thinly wire structures at known distribution functions of current radiators, which are determined based on approximate solutions. This method can be applied for the radio technical means radiating in both one frequency and various ranges. These formulas help to calculate a compact displacement of radio stations and antennas system in the site of a military fi eld communication network with taking account of an electromagnetic compatibility of radio devices.
Key words
electromagnetic fi eld strength, electromagnetic compatibility, radio station, military fi eld communication network, frequency range.
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Journal of Defense Resources Management 11:2(2020): 154-159.
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COMMUNICATION CHALLENGES IN THE POST-TRUTH ERA

Brindusa Maria POPA

Regional Department of Defense Resources Management Studies, Brasov, Romania
Abstract
Communication, possibly one of people’s most favourite activity, is present everywhere, every moment and therefore, connected to the basic social and managerial functions like: planning, organizing, motivating, controlling aiming at a “(…) continuous and dynamic shaping, modifi cation or change of knowledge, stances and behaviours towards the directions being in conjunction with the values and interests of the subjects being in mutual relations”. It aims at producing eff ects at three diff erent levels: idea, emotion and behaviour level. The idea level is the easiest to impact, new ideas can develop or can be taken into consideration without much analysis; the second level is not as easy to infl uence however, emotions can be stirred through communication. The third level, the most important one is the hardest to aff ect because a change in behaviour is diffi cult to attain due to the complexity and the lengthiness of the process. A lasting change in behavior usually requires a considerable dedication of time, eff ort, and emotion.
Key words
communication, ideas, emotions, behaviour, truth, change.
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Journal of Defense Resources Management 11:2(2020): 160-165.
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SOCIAL TRANSFORMATION OF INDONESIAN SOCIETY AFTER THE 1965 INCIDENT AND ITS CONTRIBUTION TO SOCIAL RESILIENCE IN THE REPUBLIC OF INDONESIA

Amarulla OCTAVIAN*
Joni WIDJAYANTO**
I Nengah PUTRA***
A. P. SUMARNO****

*Maritime Security Study Program, Indonesia Defense University
**Total War Strategy Study Program, Indonesia Defense University
***Defense Industry Study Program, Indonesia Defense University
****Defense Management Study Program, Indonesia Defense University
Abstract
The 1965-incident became a scourge for the Indonesian nation due to the occurrence of a bloody incident in form of a horizontal confl ict involving ideological political factions in Indonesia at that time. Nevertheless, the 1965 incident was able to bring the novelty and progress that occurred in Indonesian society afterwards as its positive aspects. The study aims to provide an analysis of Post-1965 social transformation and its contribution to the social resilience of the Unitary State of the Republic of Indonesia. This research employed Soft System Methodology, Interpretive Structural Modeling, System Dynamic for extracting information related to research topics by bringing together sources to share facts and views regarding the research topic. Based on the research results from subject-matter experts, there are 12 (twelve) main elements that were confi rmed and selected to design the model and interpretive structural modeling. the result of ISM and MICMAC diagram analysis then divided the twelve elements into 4 (four) quadrants, namely Quadrant I (Autonomous) consisting of two elements, namely: a) grassroots solidity (C12); b) social transformation (C9). Quadrant II (Dependent) consists of six elements, namely: a) elements of society (C1); b) community organization (C2); c) leader of political party (C3); d) education and social gap (C8); e) traumatic society (C9); f) social transformation (C10). Quadrant III (Linkage) consists of elements of the People’s Representative Council (C5). Quadrant IV (Independent) consists of three elements, namely: a) Government (C4); b) Regional Heads (C6); c) political education.
Key words
Social Transformation, 1965 Incidents, Social Resilience, Soft System Methodology, Interpretative Structural Modeling (ISM).
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Journal of Defense Resources Management 11:2(2020): 166-185.
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DEFENSE DIPLOMACY AND COUNTRY EXISTENCE

Budi PRAMONO

Department of Defense Diplomacy, Faculty of Defense Strategy, Universitas Pertahanan, Indonesia
Abstract
This paper aims to discuss defense diplomacy eff orts by TNI to strengthen the country existence. The world multipolarization put foreign policy into new challenges of world power distribution, non-boundary and not centered on two classical blocs (East and West). This condition requires the TNI to have an adaptive capacity related to the role and ability in responding to challenges in defense diplomacy tasks. There are 3 conclusions related to defense diplomacy in strengthening the existence of country. First, world multipolarization creates challenges to provide an opportunity for Indonesia to use it as an opportunity to build more constructive relationships in developing the country interests from the economic, socio-cultural and defense sectors. Second, actualization of defense diplomacy as a national policy must be consistent with country interests, especially in eff ort to maintain domestic stability which is closely related to regional situation. Third, several strategic partner countries of Indonesia need to receive comprehensively a systematic and programmed treatment in according with character of defense diplomacy, namely Confi dence Building Measure (CBM), enhancement of defense capabilities and development of defense industry. Therefore, government needs to develop its relevance by exploring defense diplomacy as the spearhead to strengthen the existence of Indonesian nation and country.
Key words
Diplomacy, Multipolar, Defense, TNI.
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Journal of Defense Resources Management 11:2(2020): 186-194.
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THE DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY FOR EMPOWERING THE DEFENSE AREA OF A NON-MILITARY ASPECT IN PACIRAN, LAMONGAN

Budi PRAMONO*
A. K. SUSILO**

*Indonesia Defense University, Citeureup, Sentul, Bogor, West Java Indonesia 16810
**Indonesia Naval Technology College, Bumimoro, Morokrembangan, Surabaya, Jawa Timur Indonesia 60178
Abstract
The Regional government of Lamongan Regency has made various eff orts in dealing with this non-military threat, but it is still not suffi cient for the conditions expected. One of which is by cooperating with several side agencies to overcome it (TNI-Polri and other related agencies). This study aims at designing a strategy for developing a state defense system of a non-military aspect in Paciran, Lamongan Regency in resisting non-military threats. This study employed SWOT-Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) method. What makes this study diff er from previous research is there are aspects of the astagatra (8 aspects of life) criteria included in the internal factors of the SWOT analysis. Furthermore, the SWOT and AHP factors are used to determine strategies in supporting non-military defense aspect policies. In the formulation of a strategy for developing the empowerment of the non-military aspect of defense in Paciran-Lamongan, the selected strategy has been identifi ed, namely the ST strategy (using strength to deal with threats) consisting of six sub strategies. This research is expected to provide input for regional governments in capability development based on regional developments in facing non-military threats.
Key words
Non-military, Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP), Strength Weakness Opportunity Threat (SWOT), Strategy.
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Journal of Defense Resources Management 11:2(2020): 195-221.
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FAUNA PROTECTION PRACTICES FOR UKRAINIAN MILITARY TRAINING AREA IN VIEW OF NATO GUIDANCE DOCUMENTS

Serhiy ОREL

Hetman Petro Sahaidachny National Army Academy, Lviv, Ukraine
Abstract
The objective of this article is an implementation of fauna environmental protection at one of the Ukrainian military training areas using the recommendations of NATO documents. The impact of military activities on territory of training area was evaluated by theirs infl uence on the two indicator species – listed in the Red Data Book of Ukraine – Lesser Spotted Eagle and White-tailed (sea)Eagle, included, in addition, to the European Red List too. The eff ect of heavy metals (lead, nickel, copper, zinc) that are accumulating in the soil of the training area on the ability to increase mass birds was investigated. It was found that the hazard index is signifi cantly less than 1, which indicates satisfactory environmental conditions for the fauna of the territory.
Key words
military training area, fauna protection, ecological risk assessment.
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Journal of Defense Resources Management 11:2(2020): 222-232.
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