JoDRM Volume 13, Issue no. 1 (24), April 2022

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CONTENTS
I. ARTICLES



MENU OF CONTRACTS: A NEW APPROACH TO IMPROVING NAVY RETENTION BONUSES

Chong WANG
William R. GATES
Peter A. SIMERMAN


Department of Defense Management, Naval Postgraduate School Monterey
Abstract
Military success requires retaining suffi cient capable service members, but there is little research on retaining quality personnel. We propose an innovative bonus structure to retain the right quantity and quality of personnel by setting retention bonuses through a menu-of-contracts. The menu provides choices between bonus structures that encourage higher and lower quality personnel to voluntarily select the bonus structure that best refl ects their perceived quality. This addresses two essential problems in military personnel research: adverse selection (making inappropriate retention decisions due to hidden quality information) and moral hazard (incentives encouraging personnel to provide less than their best eff ort). A menu-of-contracts can meet the military’s retention needs without relying on past performance to measure expected future performance. This retains higher quality personnel, increases morale and improves future retention. It also induces personnel to maximize eff ort throughout their careers as they strive for the highest bonus while maintaining the perception of egalitarianism.
Key words:
retention bonus, reenlistment bonus, menu-of contracts, retention auction, selective reenlistment bonus, selective retention bonus.
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Journal of Defense Resources Management 13:1(2022): 5-31.
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RETENTION OF MILITARY PERSONNEL. PRACTICE OF THE GEORGIAN DEFENSE FORCES AND EXPERIENCE OF THE US ARMY

Koba TCHITCHINADZE*
Nunu OVSYANNIKOVA**


*Chief of Section Personal Readiness Analysis of J-1 Department of Georgian Defense forces, PHD in Public Administration
**Associate Professor of Technical University of Georgiay
Abstract
Having defense forces that meets modern requirements is essential for the development and stability of Georgia, protection of national interests, overcoming the threats facing the country, national security priorities and implementation of strategic choices. To achieve these goals, the country is focused on building combatready, well equipped and trained defense forces, which also includes planning of military personnel, recruitment, retention, career development and separation/ retirement of military personnel. It should be mentioned that management of the military personnel in the Georgian Defense forces and defi ning the ways which lead to achieve the set goals are based on guidelines of NATO standards, US and Western experience and recommendations of international organizations, as well as NATO commitments. The article consists of an introduction, a main part and a conclusion. The introduction of the work presents the practical and the theoretical signifi cance of the article. The main part presents the theoretical and practical aspects of conducting the process of retaining military personnel in Georgian Defense Forces and the experience of the US Army. The conclusion introduces the results and recommendations for the development of the military retention system and its future prospects.
Key words:
Retention; Retention program; Retention of military personnel; Retention NCO.
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Journal of Defense Resources Management 13:1(2022):32-40.
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TRUST AND COMPETENCY: AN ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE PERSPECTIVE

Andrei-Robert NICA

Ministry of Defense, Romania
Abstract
An organization can increase its performance by the optimal use of its resources (human, capital, material, technological) in relation to organizational goals. Even if the goals are set for the organization itself, ultimately these are achieved through the human resources available, in other words the organization depends on the knowledge, skills, abilities and other characteristics of its human resources for achieving its goals. Properly motivated human resources equipped with the right competencies, which are aligned with organizational goals have a decisive eff ect on the organization’s performance. Furthermore, one of the main factors that lead to the achievement of an organizational goal is social cooperation, a characteristic that attests to the capacity to work together. The main driver for this ability is trust, an essential element of social cohesion. Studies (Zand, 1972; Salamon & Robinson, 2008; Searle et al., 2011; Whitney, 1994; Kramer & Tyler, 1996, Davis & Landa, 1999) show trust has both direct and indirect relationship on organizational performance. From this premise, this paper is providing a bird’s eye view on the concepts of trust and competency and their impact on organizational performance as the central theme.
Key words:
Trust, Organizational performance; competencies; skills; defense organizations.
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Journal of Defense Resources Management 13:1(2022):41-57.
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CONTEMPORARY TRENDS IN THE MANAGEMENT OF HUMAN RESOURCES AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR THE MILITARY SYSTEM

Marian CADAR

Ministry of Defense, Romania
Abstract
This paper focuses on the importance of the human resources management in the organization, and certain ways that can improve the access to people as a resource. The premise is that there are certain fi elds and approaches in the human resource management that are constantly changing and, provided that they adequately adapt, can also improve the management of human resources in the military organization. Nowadays, for this particularly complex resource of any organization, there is a constant competition to have, to attract, to train and retain the most valuable personnel, meaning that even the military organization must fi nd ways to compete with the civilian organizations to have the best people. Adequate human resources management in the military organization should provide welltrained personnel, with high core values and a well-established path in career in order to have balanced attrition rates, leading to mutual benefits.
Key words:
human resource management; recruitment; training; retention; attrition; coaching; mentoring.
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Journal of Defense Resources Management 13:1(2022):58-78.
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MICROLEARNING FOR PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT

Ana-Maria CHISEGA-NEGRILĂ

Command and Staff College, “Carol I” National Defense University, Bucharest, Romania
Abstract
Undoubtedly, teaching and learning have taken diff erent forms throughout history. First, they were limited to the hand-in of information from one generation to the next, but in time, schools began to develop and thrive. Nowadays, due to the inordinate number of information that people need at their working place, both teaching and learning are on the verge of a revolution which will probably change education as we know it. However, as this process in underway, it is diffi cult to predict whether the steps taken now to modernize the educational system are all made in the right direction. Will microcontent and microlearning be the answer to some of the problem in education? If people learn only what is needed and necessary, will this solve the information overload? The aim of this paper is to answer some of these questions by providing a balanced approach regarding the scope, uses and design of microlearning for professional development.
Key words:
micro learning, lifelong learning, professional development, microcontent, course design.
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Journal of Defense Resources Management 13:1(2022):79-87.
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PROPOSALS ON DEFENSE PROGRAM STRUCTURE: THE CASE OF THE MINISTRY OF DEFENSE OF GEORGIA

Ivan OKROMTCHEDLISHVILI

PhD student, Business Administration, International Black Sea University, Faculty of Business and Technology, Tbilisi, Georgia
Abstract
Defense organizations absorb large amounts of public resources. The way to improve the eff ectiveness of the management of defense funds implies the introduction of a performance-based budgeting approach, which links the funding of public sector organizations to the results they deliver. One of the more advanced government-wide performance budgeting systems that uses performance information systematically in the preparation of the government budget is program budgeting, in which expenditures are classifi ed into groups of similar activities or projects (i.e., programs) with common outputs and outcomes. A central issue in good program budgeting is the appropriate defi nition of programs and other elements of the socalled program hierarchy. This paper overviews the principles and approaches for formulating an eff ective defense program structure, analyzes the existing program structure of the Ministry of Defense of Georgia, identifi es its shortcomings, and suggests ways to improve it.
Key words:
program budgeting, results-based program, capability, output, outcome.
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Journal of Defense Resources Management 13:1(2022):88-105.
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ASSESSING MILITARY READINESS IN NATIONAL ARMY OF REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA’S UNITS – METHODS AND CHALLENGES

Ianac DELI

Republic of Moldova
Abstract
In 2021, in the Republic of Moldova anticipated Parliamentary elections, which were won by the pro-European political party “Party Action and Solidarity” were held. After the election of the Moldova’s Government, that was formed from the parliamentary majority, the governance program was entitled “Good Times”. As a result entire nation is expecting changes in their level of life, expended social benefi ts, increased salaries and pensions, etc. However the “Good Times” came in not really a good period. Complex and complicated regional situation, energy crises, COVID-19 pandemics, factors that aff ect directly and indirectly the national security. In times like this, is critical for the country’s key decision making authorities and decision makers to understand the undisputed importance of having a ready military force that can step-up in any situation, from providing territorial integrity to helping authorities deal in any emergency situations, but all that requires political maturity, commitment, resources allocation, and a desire to evolve and prosper as a nation. In 2018, in the Republic of Moldova new National Defense and Military Strategies were ratifi ed by the Parliament and Government respectively. These documents stipulate new threats and a new set of objectives that the National Army must accomplish. However, not even after 30 years of existence and continuous foreign assistance, the common task list for the units in the National Army had not been developed, standards were not properly set, and clear guidance of what is expected from a unit to execute is not quite clear. Finally, considering the continuously evolving operational environment and threats in the region, the existing capabilities in National Army are not suffi cient to provide proper protection of the state’s sovereignty and its territorial borders. Nor these capabilities exist to conduct the adequate peacekeeping operations in the Transnistrian Region, to support civil authorities in case of emergency, or to participate in multinational peacekeeping operations abroad, being fully interoperable with its strategic partners. This work provides an overview of relevant strategic documents of the Republic of Moldova, and examples of theoretical approaches on determining/ evaluating readiness status of a military unit/force. The main objective of this work is to provide the Military Decision Makers with some recommendations on changing the current state of aff airs in the fi eld of readiness assessment of the military units. The results should be taken into consideration in order to obtain effi cient transformation, a process that has already started in the National Army. With the recommendation exposed in this work, such as: development of mission essential task list, development of national regulation for evaluation of the unit’s readiness, development of evaluating criteria, establishment of readiness levels, proper equipping and training along with functional task-organization, and last but not list extend of the social benefi ts packages for the all personnel working in the Defense Institutions, it is absolutely possible to develop and maintain ready forces to support all national interests.
Key words:
readiness, assessment, resource allocation, national interest.
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Journal of Defense Resources Management 13:1(2022):106-138.
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STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT OF THE DEFENSE INDUSTRY: A REVIEW ON CLUSTERING STRATEGY

Ebru CAYMAZ

Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Canakkale, Turkey
Abstract
In addition to its military and political signifi cance, the defense industry is also a strategic sector in terms of economy. There are several strategic decision areas in both the public and private sectors operating within the industry. In today’s rapidly changing conditions, being able to develop and implement eff ective strategic decisions necessitates maturity in strategic management. In this respect, the clustering strategy implemented by the Turkish defense industry has brought many strategic advantages. Accordingly, this study aims to examine the strategic management process of the Turkish defense industry in the context of clustering strategy. Therefore, the dimensions of strategic management, its important components and the relationship between performance indicators and clustering strategy are examined. After a literature review on strategic management and clustering strategy in the defense sectors, evaluations and recommendations are discussed.
Key words:
Clustering strategy, defense clusters, Turkish defense industry, strategic management.
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Journal of Defense Resources Management 13:1(2022):139-147.
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INNOVATION ACTIVITIES IN EUROPEAN UNION ENTERPRISES: AN OVERVIEW

Cristina ANTONOAIE

Regional Department of Defense Resources Management Studies, Brasov, Romania
Abstract
Nowadays innovation is more than necessary for an enterprise to survive the competition on the market. The Community innovation survey from the EUROSTAT Database provides us with the data necessary to analyze the innovation activities of the enterprises in EU Countries. In this paper we will focus on the latest data from 2018 describing the enterprises with innovation activities by activity and size class and the enterprises that introduced new or improved processes by type of innovation, activity and size class.
Key words:
innovation, innovation activities, innovative enterprises.
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Journal of Defense Resources Management 13:1(2022):148-157.
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HOSPITAL MANAGEMENT TRANSFORMATION STRATEGIES IN ROMANIA RESULTING FROM THE NEW SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC CONDITIONS

Mihaela BARCAN

Pneumoftiziology Hospital Leamna, Craiova, Romania
Abstract
In the current conditions of biological risk, at a time when many countries are already threatened by the emergence of the sixth pandemic wave of COVID-19, the Romanian health system is under pressure that no one has anticipated until a while ago. The migration of a large number of people from Ukraine to Romania and other countries, using our country in transit, puts pressure on the medical system through the appearance of diseases considered eradicated or strains not treatable by vaccination. Under these conditions, the transformation of hospital management is vital for maintaining the optimal parameters of the national health system and ensuring national security.
Key words:
public health, national security, hospital management, infectious diseases, transformation, change management, health fi nancing.
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Journal of Defense Resources Management 13:1(2022):158-165.
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CHANGE MANAGEMENT: A WAY OF ENHANCING ORGANIZATIONAL EFFICIENCY

George BUCĂȚA *
Alexandru-Marius RIZESCU *
Vasile Florin POPESCU **


* “Nicolae Bălcescu” Land Forces Academy, Sibiu, Romania
** “Carol I” National Defence University of Bucharest, Romania
Abstract
Since the process of creating an organization is the implementation of activities in terms of eff ectiveness, any organization during operation must adapt to the new conditions that occur in the internal and external environment of adaptation, which more often requires organizational development through improved strategy, organizational structure, etc., resulting in increased eff ectiveness in the implementation of specifi c activities, where organizational development is defi ned as a process or a fi eld of research that includes a wide range of activities.
Key words:
organizational change, organizational effi ciency, change management.
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Journal of Defense Resources Management 13:1(2022):166-173.
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LITERATURE REVIEW AS SCIENTIFIC METHOD IN DEFENSE RESOURCES MANAGEMENT STUDIES

Loreta-Daniela MAZILU

Regional Department of Defense Resources Management Studies, Brasov, Romania
Abstract
Literature reviews are the base of all types of research from defense resources management fi eld. Therefore, any research should begin with an analysis of the literature relevant to the subject of the study, because this analysis allows the identifi cation or positioning of the research in the current context. Literature review is, in fact, an analysis of what has been studied in the fi eld so far, an analysis of the limits of existing research and the consequences of these limits, is an analysis that identifi es the need to develop or complete existing studies. Metaphorically speaking, literature review is for scientifi c research what GPS (Global Positioning System) is for an object or entity on earth. The aim of this article is to increase the quality of the scientifi c researches by presenting the literature review as a scientifi c method that can be used in the fi eld of defense resource management at any time, even in times of crisis, which can provide valuable results with minimal resources only if the right type of review is properly chosen and are followed specifi c steps. Also, this article can be a guideline for beginner researchers.
Key words:
scientifi c method, literature review, management, research, defense resources.
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Journal of Defense Resources Management 13:1(2022):174-185.
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DEVELOPMENT OF WAR THEORY. AN OVERVIEW

Mehman SULEYMANOV *
Ramil SHUKUROV **


* War College of Armed Forces of the Republic of Azerbaijan
** Partner Military Representative of Azerbaijan to Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe
Abstract
It is impossible to fi nd a nation in the world that has existed and still exists that has not faced the trials of war in its history and has not tried to emerge from this war with fewer losses and better results. As for the ways to achieve this, after various observations and generalizations, extremely diff erent and dissimilar views and opinions have emerged from time to time. However, since these ideas and considerations could not go beyond the level of social evolution of the time, the issues of interest were explained in a simple way and were based more on subjective thinking. Although the conclusions of the authors of simple ideas, unscientifi c generalizations and theories are of historical importance, they failed to reveal the objective causes of wars and the regularities of war management. They also created misconceptions about the emergence and operation of wars. This article briefl y aims to create a picture of the development of ideas and concepts about the essence and nature of war from ancient times.
Key words:
war, politics, military art, theory of war, state, military security.
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Journal of Defense Resources Management 13:1(2022):186-203.
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ENCRYPTED CLASSIFIED VOICE INFORMATION AND THE MANAGEMENT OF ITS SUSTAINABILITY

Elxan SABZİEV
Azad BAYRAMOV
Rahila SADIGOVA


Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences, Control Systems Institute, Baku, Azerbaijan
Abstract
The problem of management of the reliable information security is one of the most important problems of our time. The problem of protecting information from unauthorized intervention and external impact is always topical and seriously investigated. A modifi cation of the encryption algorithm related to the symmetric encryption method during the transmission of classifi ed voice information is consudered in the paper. A management of the assessnent of a level of protection of encrypted classifi ed voice information against cryptographic attacks is investigated by using of calculation of the keys number of encrypted data. This method is based on the rule of refl ected sliding encrypted voice information.
Key words:
voice information, symmetric encryption, decryption, сalculation method.
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Journal of Defense Resources Management 13:1(2022):204-210.
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UNITED NATIONS CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES

Edith Mihaela DOBRESCU

PhD SR grade III, Institute for World Economy, Bucharest, Romania
Abstract
The UN organization sustain that is universally recognized as a platform for reliable collaboration and with an important role of preventive diplomacy in maintaining peace and security in the world. This approach announces the importance of a new era of multilateralism, where the countries of the earth are working together to solve global problems, the international system is working quickly to protect everyone in the event of an emergency. The paper aims to present the report “Our Common Agenda”which sets out the vision for the future of global cooperation.
Key words:
UN, international relations, international agreements.
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Journal of Defense Resources Management 13:1(2022):211-216.
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