JoDRM Volume 12, Issue no. 1 (22), April 2021

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CONTENTS
I. ARTICLES



A STUDY ON THE IMPACT OF THE COVID-19 PANDEMIC ON THE LEVEL OF INDIVIDUAL CONSCIOUSNESS AND ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE IN MONOSPECIAL HOSPITAL UNITS IN ROMANIA

Mihaela BARCAN

Pneumoftiziology Hospital Leamna, Romania
Abstract
In the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, the identification and evaluation of the factors that affect the motivation, attitude and satisfaction of employees working as medical, health or auxiliary staff in health organizations, directly involved in the fight against the pandemic, was a desideratum of this scientific research. The results obtained maintained the conclusions formulated in previous research, the research model developed by the author, in order to facilitate the transformation of human resources management (HRM) in health organizations, proving its reliability in the current pandemic context, with positive impact, in public health and in terms of national security.
Key words:
public health, human resources, commitment, motivation, performance, attitude, work climate, staff turnover
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Journal of Defense Resources Management 12:1(2021): 5-40.
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PORTER’S DIAMOND MODEL AND THE COMPETITIVENESS OF THE TURKISH DEFENSE INDUSTRY

Göksel KORKMAZ*
Mustafa Kemal TOPCU**


*Military Attachê, Madrid, Spain
** ST Strategy and Technology Development LLC, Ankara, Turkey
Abstract
Turkish Defense Industry is the locomotive of the national technology move. However, there is a need to develop strategies in line with the national strategic objectives to increase the contribution of the defense industry to national competitive edge. The ever-changing environmental and technological conditions and advances in the understanding of defense and security make it necessary to update vision for the defense industry. Porter’s diamond model has become a generally accepted and frequently used model in terms of providing a more systematic and disciplined perspective in the context of competition strategies, promoting the creation of a value chain on a sectorial basis and supporting national competitiveness. Towards this end, the aim of this study is to analyze Turkey’s defense industry’s competitiveness by means of Porter’s diamond model and present a future perspective. The reports of the Defense Industry Presidency and the Defense Industry Association have been systematically examined and analyzed.
Key words:
Defense Industry, Defense Planning, Porter, Diamond Model
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Journal of Defense Resources Management 12:1(2021): 41-74.
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GEO-POLITICAL FACTORS INFLUENCING KENYA AND TANZANIA FOREIGN POLICY BEHAVIOR SINCE 1967

Patrick Wakhungu JUMA*
Elijah Onyango Standslause ODHIAMBO**


*Ministry of East African Community and Regional Development, Kenya
** Bomet University College (BUC), Kenya, Department of Arts and Social Sciences, Kenya
Abstract
The question regarding the extent to which foreign policy influences regionalism is subject to debate. This issue is still emotive, fluid, speculative and anchored on conjecture. The study assessed geopolitical factors influencing Kenya and Tanzania foreign policy behavior since 1967. The study was guided by Two- Good theory, Neoclassical Realism and Neo-functionalism theories. Historical, cross cultural and descriptive research designs were used. The study area was Kenya and Tanzania and the population was citizens of the two states with the target population being cross border business community, government officials in Ministries of EAC and Foreign Affairs, and EAC organisms - the Secretariat and Legislative Assembly on which purposive sampling was used. A sample size of 384 respondents was created from the total population using the Gomm (2008) formula. The study utilized both primary and secondary data. Instruments of data collection were : questionnaires, interviews and focus group discussions. Findings revealed that geopolitical factors influencing Kenya’s and Tanzania’s foreign policies are to a large extent similar and that they have direct impact on the foreign policies of both states. That strategic location of both states as a geo-strategic factor affects both, though with significant differences. Kenya’s location astride the volatile Horn of Africa has complicated its security, thus influencing its foreign policy behavior. The study recommends that in view of the similarities in geopolitical factors that influence Kenya’s and Tanzania’s foreign policy behavior, the two states should cooperate and harmonise their foreign policies to avoid unnecessary misunderstanding and naked and open rivalry that can thrust the region into political and economic paralysis.
Key words:
Foreign Policy, policy behavior, regional integration
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Journal of Defense Resources Management 12:1(2021): 75-98.
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THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MILITARY EXPENDITURE AND ECONOMIC GROWTH IN MIDDLE EAST AND NORTH AFRICA (MENA) COUNTRIES

Masoud Ali KHALID
Munadhil Abdul Jabar Abdul RAZAQ


College of Administration & Financial Science, Department of Banking and Financial Science, Cihan University Slemani, Kurdistan Region, Iraq
Abstract
The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region is composed of countries with a shared heritage that are at various stages of economic growth and are home to extremely diverse natural resources. There have been military or civil wars in the majority of the countries in the region. There were wars that caused extreme human misery, economic displacement, and many development opportunities were lost by the nations of the region. Therefore, a substantial proportion of national budgets is used for military expenditure. In addition, for the economy, military investments produce both costs and profits. This study investigated the correlation between military expenditures and growth in MENA Countries by applying panel data over the span 2009-2019. As a result, we found a positive and significant impact of military expenditure on economic growth.
Key words:
Military expenditures, MENA countries, Economic growth, Dynamic panel data
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Journal of Defense Resources Management 12:1(2021): 99-116.
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SISHANKAMRATA DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY IN MAINTAINING THE SUSTAINABILITY OF INDONESIA’S STRATEGIC INTERESTS

Amarulla OCTAVIAN
Joni WIDJAYANTO
I. N. PUTRA
A. P. SUMARNO
H.J.R. SARAGIH


Maritime Security Study Program, Indonesia Defense University, Indonesia
Abstract
The development of that strategic environment can create both opportunities and threats for Indonesia. The integration of the main components, reserves, and support is the key to the success of Total People’s Defense and Security System (Sistem Pertahanan dan Keamanan Rakyat Semesta; Sishankamrata) in defending Indonesia’s strategic interests from all threats. For this reason, efforts are required to direct the development and fostering of the main components, reserves, and support planned in a state defense posture and guided by the concept of Sishankamrata. This study aims at developing a strategy for the Total People’s Defense and Security System to face the development of the 21st century strategic environment. In this study, the SWOT analysis method, Interpretive structural modeling (ISM), and Balanced Scorecard (BSC) approach were used. Based on the results of the SWOT analysis on the development of Sishankamrata, there were 18 (eighteen) sub-strategies. Based on the results of the Interpretive structural modeling (ISM), it was discovered that the ST-1 sub-strategy, the formulation of defense policies expected that they do not overlap and be in line with the world maritime axis policy program, was the beginning of determining the development of the Sishankamrata strategy. Based on the implementation plan of Balanced Scorecard (BSC), it was uncovered that the financial perspective consists of 4 (four) sub-strategies; the internal process perspective consists of 5 (five) sub-strategies; the Growth & Development perspective consists of 6 (six) sub-strategies, and the Customer/User perspective consists of 3 (three) sub-strategies.
Key words:
Sishankamrata (Total People’s Defense and Security System), Strategic environment, SWOT analysis, Interpretive structural modeling (ISM), Balanced Scorecard (BSC)
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Journal of Defense Resources Management 12:1(2021): 117-148.
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GRAND STRATEGY IN A VOLATILE ENVIRONMENT. THE CASE OF ROMANIA

Maria CONSTANTINESCU

Regional Department of Defense Resources Management Studies, Brasov, Romania
Abstract
Developing a Grand Strategy is never an easy task, as it geared towards building a framework for the use of all the instruments of national power (diplomatic, informational, economic, military) in order to achieve national objectives that ultimately serve to support the national values and interests. The current volatile environment complicates the issue even further, by changing at a fast pace the external and internal conditions in which a country evolves. The aim of this paper is to analyze the main directions of Romania’s security and defense approach as outlined in the current Strategy for the Country’s Defense and to highlight the degree to which the current strategy is suitable for a volatile environment.
Key words:
strategy, volatility, risks, threats, ways of action, Romania
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Journal of Defense Resources Management 12:1(2021): 149-156.
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MODELLING THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE AUTOMOTIVE SUPPORT OF THE ARMED FORCES OF THE REPUBLIC OF AZERBAIJAN

Aziz TALIBOV

Azerbaijan Republic War College of the Armed Forces
Abstract
The paper investigates the process of providing automotive technical support for the Armed Forces of the Republic of Azerbaijan by using synergeticbifurcation theory of system development. Based on expert evaluations and statistical data of the auto-technical support of the Armed Forces during 1991–2019, recorded progress trends of the compound’s elements of auto-technical support are recorded. The paper focuses on studying the conceptual model of improvement of the autotechnical support system. The opportunities of development of the auto-technical support of the Armed Forces is investigated based on the phases-time characteristics of system’s elements in bifurcation space. In this respect, the bifurcation model of the auto-technical support system is constructed and the functional dependence between elements of functioning system factors are defined.
Key words:
truck technical support, bifurcation, dependence function, system elements, period of progress.
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Journal of Defense Resources Management 12:1(2021): 157-166.
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THE SYRIAN CONFLICT. NATO’S FRAGMENTARY MIDDLE EAST STRATEGY OR RUSSIA AS A GAME CHANGER

Nijat MAMMADOV

War College of the Armed Forces, Azerbaijan Republic
Abstract
In 2015, four years after the outbreak of the Syrian conflict, which at the beginning was not on the focus and “interest” of NATO, the new actors were emerged in the campaign. Particularly, Russia’s involvement in the conflict has increased the intensity of military operations and decisively changed the course of the conflict on behalf of Syrian Government Forces. Until September 2015, the main players in the theatre have been Assad regime, Free Syrian Army (FSA), ISIS, anti-ISIS Coalition Forces, and the Syrian Democratic Forces (affiliated groups). However, today “surprisingly” strengthening players of the conflict are Syrian regime, Russia, Iran, and Hezbollah that were unimaginable at the beginning of the conflict. Surprisingly – because prior to the Syrian conflict “nobody” anticipated Russian, Iranian and pro-Iranian militia groups hegemony in Syrian territory. On the other hand, U.S., its Allies in Middle East, and most of the NATO member countries backed the Syrian Opposition and the Free Syrian Army, which were struggling to overthrow the Assad regime. At the same time, U.S. and most of its Allies publicly declared the recognition of the Syrian Opposition as a legitimate representative of Syrian people. Despite these support, in fact, the Syrian opposition and the Free Syrian Army were forced to retreat from almost all key areas, inflicting heavy losses. Beside, U.S. and his Allies, who previously projected the settlement of the Syrian conflict in the replacement of the Assad regime, now suggest democratic elections to be held under the auspices of the UN, not mentioning the “regime change”. Analyzing these two approaches - previous and current policy of regulation of the Syrian conflict, the considerable differences between them become evident. It seems that, the reason for this U-turn in policy is Russia’s entry into the Syrian equation as a game changer.
Key words:
conflict, strategic surprise, security, policy change, NATO, Middle East, Mediterranean basin, Free Syrian Army, Syrian Opposition, actor, player, UNSCR.
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Journal of Defense Resources Management 12:1(2021): 167-176.
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OPEN SOURCE INTELLIGENCE (OSINT). THE WAY AHEAD

Gabriel-Traian UNGUREANU

”Mihai Viteazul” National Intelligence Academy, Bucharest, Romania
Abstract
The technological advances have led to an exponential growth in the amount and complexity of open-source information. The weight of this type of information in the collection base has significantly increased and now we have intelligence services that collect more than 80% of their intelligence from open sources. Therefore, in this article, referring to state-of-the-art technologies in an exhaustive approach, we analyze how the new technologies sustain the intelligence services in their actions for collecting open-source intelligence and increase the efficiency of related processes. Moreover, we analyze how these technologies can supplement and enhance one another throughout the phases of intelligence cycle to render the intelligence services’ activity more efficient. Finally, analyzing the historical progresses, we will foretell what technologies are expected to support OSINT in the next ten years and how they will be integrated into the phases of intelligence cycle, forecasting how OSINT will advance through technological change.
Key words:
open-source intelligence, OSINT, technological change, intelligence cycle, new technologies impact.
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Journal of Defense Resources Management 12:1(2021): 177-200.
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THE ADVANTAGES OF INTEGRATING ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE IN BUSINESS PROCESSES

Florin OGIGAU-NEAMTIU

Romanian Ministry of National Defense
Abstract
In the current age of information, digitalization is offering advantages to the organizations proportional to their willingness and determination to integrate technology. Innovative high tech has determined the developments of extremely dynamical and demanding operational environments but is also providing the tools to cope with them. In order to achieve success modern organizations need to implement highly flexible processes, which can be easily adapted to the permanent changing input variables or to the customizable output requirements. The development of artificial intelligence technology and its integration into the organizational business processes is promising to bring advantages, which could never be reached by utilizing classical human based processes.
Key words:
business process, artificial intelligence, effectiveness, machine learning, decision-making, process redesign.
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Journal of Defense Resources Management 12:1(2021): 201-210.
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ANALYSIS OF THE DETERMINANT INFRASTRUCTURE EFFECT IN SUPPORTING SUBMARINE OPERATIONAL DURABILITY TO INCREASE THE RESILIENCE OF THE INDONESIAN STATE DEFENSE SYSTEM AT SEA

MOELYANTO*
MARSETIO**
A. OCTAVIAN**
R.O. BURA**
I. N. PUTRA**


* Doctoral Student, Indonesia Defense University (IDU), Indonesia
**Indonesia Defense University (IDU), Indonesia
Abstract
The Indonesian nation is currently continuing to develop the strength of the Indonesian Navy’s submarine fleet to increase the deterrence of the national defense system and to ensure the security and safety of shipping in strategic maritime routes. The Indonesian Navy submarine is capable of supervising ships sailing or entering and leaving Indonesian waters freely and without being detected by the sonar of warships and submarines of other countries. The limited operational time of the submarine can be caused by several things, both related to the characteristics of the submarine related to the technology used, and the availability of logistics and supporting infrastructure for the submarine’s operations. The Submarine cannot continuously dive during its operation to secure and enforce the sovereignty of the Indonesian national jurisdiction. Focus of research is on the determinant influence of infrastructure on submarine operational durability to increase the deterrence of the state defense system at sea. This research uses a qualitative analysis method with the development of thinking through interviews, Focus Group Discussions (FGD), Round Table Discussions (RTD), and semi-structured interviews to obtain data about submarine operational durability. This research found that there was a significant influence on the causal relationship between the two variables with the following information: 1) Submarines can only contribute to increase the deterrence of the state defense system at sea; 2) To be able to realize submarine operational resilience, determinant infrastructure support is needed that can be provided by the Indonesian National Army (TNI), in this case, the Navy and the Defense Industry (State and Private Owned Enterprises).
Key words:
Indonesian Navy, Indonesia Warship (KRI), Determinant Infrastructure, Submarine Technology, Focus Group Discussions (FGD), Round Table Discussions (RTD).
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Journal of Defense Resources Management 12:1(2021): 211-228.
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CONSIDERATIONS ON CONFLICT MANAGEMENT DURING ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE

George BUCATA*
Alexandru-Marius RIZESCU**
Livia-Nicoleta BARSAN **


*“Lucian Blaga” University, Sibiu, Romania
** “Nicolae Bălcescu” Land Forces Academy, Sibiu, Romania
Abstract
Organizational conflict is not based on personal values; it occurs due to dynamic changes within the structure of the organization. When these dynamics are neglected, they generate conflict within the organization. Any organization reunites groups of individuals with different personalities, job outlooks, education, systems of values and different behaviors. The maintenance of a perfect harmony is hard to be achieved, conflicts being inevitable.
Key words:
conflict management, dynamic changes, organizational conflict, organizational change.
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Journal of Defense Resources Management 12:1(2021): 229-236.
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COMMUNICATIVE CULTURE AS A COMPONENT OF A FUTURE OFFICER’S PROFESSIONAL CAREER

Ahmadova GULNUR

Azerbaijan Republic War College of the Armed Forces
Abstract
This article deals with the pedagogical conditions that ensure the effectiveness of the formation of communicative competence among future officers in the higher education system. They are professional activities by both cadets and teachers; modeling of communicative situations in the learning process, ensuring the free entry of cadets into the communication process; introduction into the educational process of a special course (elective) “Communicative competence in the professional activity of an officer”; an individual and differentiated approach to cadets in the process of developing their communication skills.
Key words:
communicative culture, officer, communication, pedagogy, professional culture, qualitative characteristic, professional activity, communicative interaction.
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Journal of Defense Resources Management 12:1(2021): 237-248.
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THE LEADERSHIP - COMMUNICATION BINOMIAL WITHIN ECONOMIC ORGANIZATIONS. AN ESSAY-BASED APPROACH

Bogdan Costin MATEI

Ministry of National Defense, Bucharest, Romania
Abstract
TThe great challenges of the third millennium are not limited to globalization (or, according to some people, the forced promotion of globalization worldwide by the world’s great powers), the fight against international terrorism or the continuous implementation of state-of-the-art technologies. They culminate in the concept of “Industry 4.0[1], the fourth industrial revolution, represented by the digitization of all aspects of social life. New elements, totally unknown until recently and especially unpredictable such as economic recession, destabilization of the euro zone, political populism, intensification of cyberattacks of Russia or China, the failure of the Trump administration etc. required changes in the current environment. Through the rapid and categorical way of imposition, two of them stand out as cataclysms of the social life, as it was perceived at the beginning of the millennium, completely transforming the reality of civilization on the old continent. Thus, the refugee crisis and the COVID-19 pandemic crisis have changed human existence in all its complexity, redefining, among other things, the daily way we make our living through work.
Key words:
work, leadership, communication, economic organization, the refugee crisis, COVID-19 pandemic crisis
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Journal of Defense Resources Management 12:1(2021): 249-256.
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